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Cuisine History


Pre-agricultural times cuisine is based on collecting, hunting and fishing.

This period corresponds to wild food. It started approximately 3 million years BP and lasted from the first human beings in the Neolithic era up to the beginning of agriculture.  

Homo sapiens sapiens, lived 40 000 years ago. All these humans lived on wild food plants taken from their natural environment. They hunted, gathered food plants, fished, and made tools and instruments adapted to these activities, the acquisition tools. They prospected for food plant species and set up the first food complexes   

The search for food played a major role in the bio-cultural evolution of man.  

Hunting big game contributed to shaping mankind's social organisation; cooking brought together people around the fire and  food consumption became a community feature.

 

Important historical marks:
 

·  6000 BC Lima Beans were being cultivated in Peru.

·  776 BC The first Olympic champion listed in the records was a cook, Coroebus of Elis, who won the sprint race in 776 BC.

·  350 BC 'Hedypatheia' (Pleasant Living). One of the earliest cookbooks, mentioned by Athenaeus.

·  100 AD The world's oldest surviving cookbook, De Re Coquinaria ("On Cookery"), is attributed to the 1st century Roman, Apicius.

·  408 The Visigoths attacked Rome and demanded 3,000 pounds of pepper as part of the city's ransom.

·   900 Fish are being farmed raised in China

·  1272 King Edward I of England (1239-1307, ruled 1272-1307) coronation feast included 278 bacon hogs, 450 pigs, 440 oxen, 430 sheep and 22,600 hens and capons.

·  1300 Huou, chef at the court of Kublai Khan (1215-1294) writes "The Important Things to Know About Eating and Drinking" This is a collection of recipes (mainly soups) and household advice.

· 1375 'Le Viander' is written by Guillaume Tirel

· 1390 The oldest surviving cookbook in English is 'The Forme of Cury', from about 1390.

·  1411 In 1411 Charles VI of France gave sole rights to the aging of Roquefort cheese to the village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, and all Roquefort still must be aged in the caves there today.

· 1516 Rheinheitsgebot (purity law) was the world's first consumer protection law.

·  1550 Supposedly, the first cafe in the world opened in 1550 in Constantinople.

·  1555 Nostradamus (1503-1566) is best known for his book of prophecies 'Centuries Asrtologiques' published in 1555. However, in the same year he also published 'Excellent er Moult Utile Opuscule a tous necessaire qui desirent avoir connaissance de plusieurs exquises recettes' (‘An excellent and most useful little work essential to all who wish to become acquainted with some exquisite recipes’)..

·  1607 The Carthusian monks in the French Alps are supposedly given the secret formula for Chartreuse liqueur by the Marechal d'Estrees.

·  1610 The 1610 Community Regulations of Kracow, Poland stated that bagels were to be given as a gift to women in childbirth.

·  1652 'Le Cuisinier francois' by La Varenne is published.

·  1670 At Cologne Cathedral, the choirmaster makes sugar sticks to give to the young singers in the choir, to keep them occupied during the Living Crèche ceremony. The first candy canes.

·  1673 The White Horse Tavern in Rhode Island was built. It is the oldest operating tavern in the United States.

·  1676 In 1676 the Compagnie de Limonadiers was formed in Paris. The vendors sold lemonade from tanks they carried on their backs. The first soft drinks.

·  1679 Denis Papin, a French physicist invented the pressure cooker, which he called 'Papin's Digester."

 

·  1690 The first shipment of bananas arrived in the colonies at Salem, Massachusetts.

·  1716 James Lind was born. Lind was a Scottish physician who recommended that fresh citrus fruit and lemon juice be included in the seamen's diet to eliminate scurvy. The Dutch had been doing this for almost two hundred years.

· 1719 The first potato planted in the United States was planted in Londonderry Common Field, New Hampshire.

· 1742 'The Compleat Housewife, or Accomplish'd Gentlewoman's Companion' is the first cookbook published in America (Williamsburg))

·  1747 'Art of Cookery', by Hanna Glasse is published.

·  1747 The oldest cattle ranch in the US was started at Montauk on Long Island, New York.

·  1754 Antoine Beauvilliers was born. He was a French chef who founded the first luxury restaurant, La Grande Taverne de Londres.

·  1766 French gastronome, a friend of Grimod de la Reyniere, who stated that Cussy had invented 366 different ways to prepare chicken. Cussy wrote 'Les Classiques de la table'.

·  1773 Benjamin Delessert was born. French industrialist who developed the first successful process to extract sugar from sugar beets.

· 1785 Oliver Evans of Newport, Delaware invented the automatic flour-milling machinery that revolutionized the industry.

· 1789 Thomas Jefferson brought a pasta making machine back with him when he returned to America after serving as ambassador to France.

·  1799 Eliza Acton Born. She wrote the first cookbook for the housewife, rather than for the professional chef.

· 1810 Sir John Leslie, a Scottish physicist and mathematician, was the first to freeze water artificially (create ice artificially). He used an air pump apparatus

· 1818 Thomas Adams was born. He manufactured the first commercially successful chewing gum, 'Black Jack.'

· 1824 Ferdinand Carre was born. A French engineer and pioneer in refrigeration methods. In 1859 he invented the ammonia vapor-compression system which became the most widely used. Vapor compression is still the system most used today.

·  1834 The first U.S. patent for a refrigerating machine was issued. Jacob Perkins patented a refrigerating machine which used sulphuric ether compression.

·  1845 Peter Cooper, inventor and founder of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, obtained the first American patent for the manufacture of gelatin. In 1895, cough syrup manufacturer Pearl B. Wait purchased the patent and developed a packaged gelatin dessert. Wait's wife, May David Wait named it "Jell-O."

·  1846 Nancy Johnson invented the hand-cranked ice cream freezer. Nothing more is known about her. Her design was patented in 1848 by William G. Young.

·  1848 Pasta is produced commercially in the U.S. for the first time.

·  1849 Self service restaurants first appear in San Francisco during the California gold rush of 1849. At first a selection of free food was placed along the bar in saloons. There were so many people, that soon other businesses opened which charged for serving yourself. You went down the line with a tray, picked what you wanted, and paid at the end of the line.

·  1859 James and E. P. Monroe were issued a patent for an eggbeater.

·  1859 Eliza Acton died: She wrote the first cookbook for the housewife, rather than for the professional chef.

· 1863 Granula, probablly the first breakfast cereal is introduced. It was created by Dr. James C. Jackson of Dansville, N.Y.

·  1871 Thomas Adams patented a chewing gum producing machine. He manufactured the first commercially successful chewing gum, 'Black Jack.'

·  1872 Walter Scott of Providence, Rhode Island invents the horse drawn lunch wagon.

·  1872 Henry Tate, an English sugar merchant, patented a method of cutting sugar into small cubes in 1872. He made a fortune.

·  1872 'Grand dictionnaire de la cuisine' was published.

·  1873 Adolphus Busch developed a method of pasteurizing beer so it could withstand temperature fluctuations, which enabled national distribution.

·  1876 The 'spreading chestnut tree' from 'The Village Blacksmith' by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, was a real tree in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at the corner of Brattle and Story Streets. It was cut down to widen the streets in 1876.

·  1879 James J. Ritty, of Dayton, Ohio, invented the cash register.

·  1880 E.W. 'Billy Ingram was born. Ingram was cofounder, with Walter A. Anderson, of the White Castle hamburger chain.

·  1880 The wholesale price of Lobster was 10 cents per pound.

·  1881 Dr. Satori Kato of Japan introduced the first instant coffee at the Pan American World Fair.

·  1882 Swiss flour manufacturer Julius Maggi begins commercial production of the first bouillon cubes. He developed them so the poor had a cheap method for making nutritious soup.

·  1884 W. Johnson patented an egg beater.

 

·  1885 Philadelphia brand cream cheese went on sale.

·  1885 Dr Pepper was invented in Waco, Texas. there is no period after the Dr in Dr Pepper.

· 1887 Asa Candler (1851-1929) a wholesale drugist, purchased the formula for Coca-Cola from John S. Pemberton an Atlanta pharmacist for $ 2,300. He sold the company in 1919 for $25 million.

·  1888 The first chewing gum to be sold in vending machines was made by Thomas Adams. He sold his gum in vending machines on elevated train station platforms in New York.

·  1889 Aunt Jemima Pancake mix was introduced. It was the first ready-mix food to be sold commercially.

·  1890 Peanut butter was developed by a St. Louis doctor for his patients with bad teeth.

·  1891 Many food historians consider the first cafeteria to have been in the YWCA of Kansas City, Mo. in 1891. It provided cheap, self-service meals to working women.

·  1891 Fig Newtons were created by Kennedy Biscuit Works in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts

·  1893 Juicy fruit chewing gum introduced.

· 1893 At the 1893 Chicago Fair, Pabst beer won a blue ribbon, and was called 'Pabst Blue Ribbon" beer from then on.

·  1895 In 1845, Peter Cooper, inventor and founder of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, obtained the first American patent for the manufacture of gelatin.  In 1895, cough syrup manufacturer Pearl B. Wait purchased the patent and developed a packaged gelatin dessert. Wait's wife, May David Wait named it "Jell-O."

·  1895 Postum cereal beverage introduced by Postum Cereal Co.

· 1895 Rudolph Boysen was born. He developed the boysenberry, a raspberry-blackberry hybrid in 1923.

·  1895 Gennaro Lombardi opened the first pizzeria in the U.S. in New York City.

·  1895 Cordon Bleu school of cooking was founded in Paris by Marthe Distell to teach cooking to upper class women.

 

·  1896 Tootsie Rolls were introduced by Leo Hirshfield of New York who named them after his daughter's nickname, 'Tootsie'.

·  1897 Campbell's Soup invents condensed soup.

· 1898 Caleb D. Bradham, a New Bern, North Carolina pharmacist created Pepsi-Cola, in imitation of Coca-Cola. (He originally called it Brad’s Drink).

·  1900 Campbell's Soup won a gold medal for their condensed soups at the Paris Exposition of 1900.

·  1900 Chiclets chewing gum, with a hard sugar coating, was introduced.

·  1900 Dos Equis (XX) Mexican Beer was first brewed in 1900 and was originally named 'Siglo XX' to signify the new millennium. Now it is simply called Dos Equis 'XX'.

·  1900 Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bar was created.

· 1900 Ferdinand Carre died. In 1859 he invented the ammonia vapor compression system for refrigeration. Vapour compression is still the system most widely used today.

·  1902 National Biscuit Company changed the name of their Animal Biscuits to 'Barnum's Animals', and redesigned the package as a circus wagon with a string attached so it could be hung on Christmas trees. They sold for 5 cents.

·  1902 The Clementine was developed in Algeria by Father Clement Rodier, a French missionary. It is a hybrid of the tangerine and the Seville orange (bitter orange).

·  1902 The pastel-colored candy disks called NECCO wafers first appeared, named for the New England Confectionery Company.

·  1903 First U.S. patent for instant coffee.

·  1903 Richard Hellmann, a New York deli owner created his recipe for bottled mayonnaise. He began to market it in 1912.

·  1903 Horace Fletcher published The ABC of Nutrition. In it he said that each mouthful of food should be chewed 32 times. He had no medical or scientific background.

· 1904 George J. French introduced French's mustard, the same year the hot dog was introduced to America at the St. Louis World's Fair.

·  1904 The tea bag was invented by Thomas Sullivan of New York City. He first used them to send samples to his customers instead of sending it in more expensive tins.

· 1904 Puffed Rice was introduced at the St. Louis World's Fair. Developed by Dr. Alexander P. Anderson of NYC, and first manufactured by American Cereal Co (which later became Quaker Oats Co.)

·  1904 Post Toasties were introduced by General Foods (originally called ‘Elijah's Manna.’)

·  1904 R. Blechyden served tea with ice at the St. Louis World's Fair and invented iced tea.

·  1904 The ice cream cone was invented at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. An ice cream vendor ran out of paper cups and asked a nearby waffle booth to make some thin waffles he could roll up to hold the ice cream.

·  1905 G. Lombardi's an Italian restaurant on Spring Street in New York City, served America’s first pizza.

·  1905 Popsicles were invented by Frank Epperson in 1905, they were originally called Epsicles!

·  1905 Thomas Adams Died. He manufactured the first commercially successful chewing gum, 'Black Jack.'

·  1906 Bel Paese cheese was created. Egidio Galbani created this popular Italian cow's milk cheese. Its name means 'beautiful country,' and supposedly comes from a book written by Father Antonio Stoppani, a friend of the family.

·  1906 The Hot Fudge Sundae was created at C.C. Browns, an ice cream parlor on Hollywood Boulevard in Los Angeles.

·  1906 The term 'filet mignon' is first used by O. Henry in his book 'The Four Million'

·  1907 Maytag washing machines are introduced. They were an addition to the farm implements the company produce in Newton, Iowa. They were produced during the seasonal slumps in farm implement sales.

·  1907 Gastronomie pratique (Practical Gastronomy) was published by Henri Babinsky (nicknamed Ali-Bab).

·  1907 One of the ad campaigns for Kellogg's Corn Flakes (then the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company) offered a free box of cereal to every woman who would wink at her grocer.

·  1907 Scott Paper Co. introduced the first paper towel.

·  1908 Tom Carvel was born. He was the inventor of the soft-serve ice cream machine, and founder of the ice cream chain, Carvel’s

·  1910 Cellophane was invented by Jacques Brandenberger, a Swiss chemist

·  1910 Ward Baking Company of Chicago, Illinois, opened the first automatic bread factory. The bread, from start to finish, was untouched by human hands, until it was placed in the wrapping machine.

·  1912 Richard Hellmann, a New York deli owner created his recipe for bottled mayonnaise in 1903. He began to market it in 1912.

·  1914 The J.L. Kraft Bros. cheese factory was founded by James L. Kraft in Stockton, Illinois.

·  1915 John Van Wormer invented the waxed cardboard milk carton. It took him 10 years to perfect the machinery to make them.

·  1916 Electric refrigerators were first offered for sale, for $900.

·  1916 Nathan Handwerker opened Nathan's in Coney Island, where he sold hot dogs for a nickel.

·  1920s Caesar Salad was created by Caesar Cardini in Tijuana.

·  1920 Fortune cookies were supposedly invented in Los Angeles.

·  1921 Harry MacElhone of Harry's Bar in Paris created the Bloody Mary

·  1921 Wheaties breakfast cereal was created.

·  1923 Candy maker Frank C. Mars of Minnesota introduced the Milky Way candy bar in 1923.

·  1925 Roquefort cheese became the first cheese to receive the "Appellation d'Origine Controlee" (AOC)

·  1926 Hormel Company of Austin, Minnesota marketed the first canned ham

·  1927 Dr.Edward Anton Asselbergs was born. He developed the process for making instant mashed potato flakes, still used today.

·  1927 Pez peppermint breath mints were introduced in Vienna.

·  1928 Bubble gum invented by Walter E. Diemer of the Fleer Chewing Gum Company.

·  1929 7-Up was originally called Bib-Label Lithiated Lemon-Lime Soda when it was invented in 1929.

·  1933 Kit Kat candy bar invented.

·  1933 A California packer was able to homogenize peanuts into a stable butter - 'Skippy Churned Peanut Butter'.

·  1933 Kraft Miracle Whip Salad Dressing is introduced by National Dairy Products.

·  1934 It is claimed that cheeseburgers were first served in 1934 at Kaelin's restaurant in Louisville, Kentucky.

·  1935 The American Can Co. introduced an enameled can for packaging beer. It was an immediate success.

·  1936 Louis Ballast of Denver, Colorado was given a trademark for the name 'cheeseburger' in 1936. He never enforced it though.

·  1937 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese was introduced. Make a meal in 9 minutes or less for 19 cents or less.

·  1938 Nestle's Crunch candy bar invented.

·  1939 The seedless watermelon was developed.

·  1940 The first Dairy Queen opened in Joliet, Illinois.

·  1940 M&M's candy invented.

·  1941 Garbage disposals introduced.

·  1942 Corn dogs are invented by Neil Fletcher for the Texas State Fair.

·  1943 Dr. Alexander P. Anderson Died. He developed Puffed Rice in NYC in 1902, which was introduced to the world at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904.

·  1944 Chiquita Banana, the song and the advertising jingle were both created for United Fruit Company.

·  1946 Tupperware was introduced.

·  1950 The first credit card, the Diners Club was created by Frank McNamara after he realized he had forgotten his wallet after dining at a restaurant.

·  1950 There were 407 breweries in operation in the U.S.

·  1950 Sugar pops are introduced

·  1951 Swanson introduces beef, chicken, turkey pot pies.

·  1951 In a survey conducted of the U.S. armed services, banana cream pie was the favorite dessert.

· 1952 The first sugar free no calorie soft drinks are introduced.

·  1952 Lipton's dry Onion Soup Mix is introduced.

· 1952 Sugar Frosted Flakes, 29 percent sugar, are introduced by Kelloggs.

·  1952 Clarence Birdseye introduces the first frozen peas.

·  1952 Mrs. Paul's introduces frozen fish sticks.

·  1952 Howard Johnson's becomes the world’s largest food chain when it opens its 351st restaurant.

·  1953 White Rose Redi-tea is the world's first instant iced tea.

·  1953 Irish Coffee is supposedly created by a bartender Joe Sheridan at Shannon Airport.

·  1953 Sugar Smacks are introduced - they contained 56% sugar.

·  1954 Kraft introduced Cracker Barrel brand natural cheese.

·  1954 Butterball self-basting turkeys are introduced.

·  1954 M&M's Peanut Chocolate Candies were introduced. Also, the the famous slogan, 'The milk chocolate melts in your mouth, not in your hand,' slogan is introduced.

·  1954 Schlitz, The Beer That Made Milwaukee Famous! introduced the 16 oz beer can.

·  1954 Burger King was founded by James McLamore and David Edgerton.

·  1955 Campbell’s developed the Green Bean Casserole Bake recipe.

·  1955 Frozen, fully stuffed turkeys, ready to cook, were introduced

·  1955 Kellogg introduced Special K breakfast cereal, with only 4.5% sugar.

·  1956 80% of U.S. households have a refrigerator, but only 8% of British households do.

·  1956 Budweiser Brewery introduces Busch beer.

·  1956 First reference in print to the drink Bloody Mary appeared in 'Punch'

·  1957 Margarine sales exceed butter sales for the first time.

·  1957 General Foods Corp. introduces TANG breakfast beverage crystals.

·  1957 Dairy Queen Hamburgers and Hot Dogs are first added to the Dairy Queen menu at some outlets in Georgia.

·  1958 Friskees introduced the first dry cat food

·  1958 Rice-A-Roni goes on sale. Produced by Vince DeDomenico from an Armenian family recipe.

·  1958 Sweet n' Low was introduced as an artificial sweetener (granulated saccharin, dextrose, cream of tartar and calcium silicate). It received U.S. trademark patent no. 1,000,000.

·  1958 Frank Carney, 18 years old, reads about the pizza fad with college students. He borrows $600 from his mother and opens the first Pizza Hut in Wichita, Kansas.

·  1958 McDonald's sold its 100 millionth hamburger.

·  1959 Oklahoma repeals its 51 year old Prohibition law leaving Mississippi the only 'dry' state in America.

·  1959 There are 32,000 supermarkets in the U.S. and account for 69 percent of all food store sales.

·  1959 The aluminum beer can is introduced by Coors of Golden, Colorado.

·  1959 McDonald's opens its 100th restaurant in Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin.

·  1960 Dr. Asselbergs developed the process for making instant mashed potato flakes, the basic process that is still used today.

·  1961 Carpaccio was invented in 1961 at Harry's Bar in Venice, Italy. It was named for the Renaissance painter Vittore Carpaccio who was noted for his use of red in his paintings. Thin sliced raw beef served with a cold vinaigrette made with olive oil, or just olive oil and lemon juice (and sometimes Parmesan cheese). Generally served on a bed of greens such as watercresss, endive, arugula and/or radicchio. Originally the beef was seared quickly, and the seared portion then trimmed off before slicing.

·  1962 The pull tab for beverage cans is introduced.

·  1962 Powdered butter was developed in Australia.

·  1963 Fruit Loops breakfast cereal is introduced.

·  1963 Irradiation was used for the first time to sterilize dried fruits and vegetables.

·  1963 The one billionth McDonald's hamburger was served by Ray Kroc on the Art Linkletter Show.

·  1964 The first 12 oz aluminum can was introduced by Royal Crown Cola. It wasn't until 3 years later that Coke started using the aluminum can.

· 1965 Cool Whip, a whipped cream substitute, was introduced by General Foods.

·  1967 Gatorade, the original sports drink, is developed by the University of Florida for their football team.

·  1967 Plastic milk bottles are introduced.

·  1967 Wisconsin was the last state to allow coloring to be added to margarine.

·  1968 The Big Mac was introduced at McDonalds for 49 cents.

·  1969 Pringles potato chips were introduced - made from dehydrated, mashed potatoes.

·  1970 Hamburger Helper was introduced

·  1971 The Quarter Pounder was introduced at McDonald's for 53 cents.

·  1971 The home food processor, Le Magi-Mix, was introduced in Paris by Pierre Verdon, also the inventor of the restaurant version, Robot-Coupe.

·  1972 Andy MacElhone creates the Blue Lagoon cocktail. He is the son of Harry of Harry's Bar in Paris.

·  1972 Hyman Golden and Leonard Marsh introduce Snapple Fruit Juices in New York.

·  1973 American Carl Sontheimer refined the French made Robot-Coupe and came up with the Cuisinart.

·  1973 Nathaniel Weyth received patent for PET (polyethylene terephthalate) beverage bottles. This was the first safe plastic strong enough to hold carbonated beverages without bursting.

·  1974 The stay-on tab for beverage cans was invented.

·  1974 Pop Rocks were unveiled by General Foods. Ever since 1956, when company research chemist William Mitchell found a way to put carbon dioxide into a solid, General Foods searched for a way to market the invention. The popping, crackling candy turns out to be worth the wait; in only five years the company will have sold 500 million packets of Pop Rocks.

·  1976 There are no red M&Ms from 1976 to 1987

·  1978 Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Ice Cream and Crepes opens.

·  1979 Paul Prudhomme opened K-Paul's Louisiana Kitchen.

·  1981 Lean Cuisine frozen dinners were introduced.

·  1981 The artificial sweetener aspartame was approved by the FDA

·  1981 The Yukon Gold potato was introduced.

·  1981 Jell-O Gelatin Pops were introduced

·  1981 Radicchio (a red variety of chicory) was first grown commercially in this country in 1981 in California.

·  1982 Newman's Own Food is founded by Paul Newman and he devotes the profits to charity.

·  1982 Wolfgang Puck opens Spago.

·  1984 Sugar Free Jell-O is introduced.

·  1984 McDonald's served its 50 billionth hamburger.

·  1985 Coca Cola introduces its new formula - no one wants it.

·  1986 Pop Secret Microwave Popcorn in introduced by General Mills

·  1987 Red M&Ms return. There were none since 1976.

·  1987 Snapple Iced Tea drinks are introduced.

·  1987 The alligator was designated the official state reptile of Florida in 1987

·  1987 North Carolina adopted milk as the official state beverage.

·  1990 Cook's Magazine folds.

·  1990 Eating Well magazine begins publication.

·  1991 Salsa sales overtakes ketchup sales for the first time ($sales)

·  1992 Electric bread machines are introduced.

·  1993 SnackWell's reduced-fat cookies are introduced.

·  1993 The Food Network premiers on television.

·  1995 Betty Crocker gets her own website.

·  1995 Blue M&Ms are introduced.

·  1996 Olestra fat substitute is approved.

·  1998 In West Virginia if you run over a animal, you can legally take it home and cook it for dinner. A law passed in 1998 lets drivers keep their road kill, as long as they report it within 12 hours. According to supporters of the new law, the state will the save money that had been used to have Highway Division employees remove dead animals from the road.





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